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Gompers teachers reach contract agreement amid union dispute. Group says Junipero Serra High name change was unlawful. San Diego will re-open final 10 library branches by September, fully restore hours by June. Organic beverage company Suja Life sold to investor group. Top Stories. With all the discussion about reparations lately, it is important to remember that women have faced tremendous discrimination and hardship since our country was founded. The 14th and 15th Amendments were ratified in andrespectively, in response to issues related to former slaves following the Civil War.
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None of these rights were applied to women at the time these amendments were ratified, and women are still struggling to obtain them today. Following the American War of Independence, women were subject to the doctrine of coverture, which caused married women to lose their legal existence.
Married women were the chattel property of their husbands. Married women could not own property, because they were property. Husbands could beat and rape their wives. The marital rape exception still exists today. Mothers had no rights to their children. Outside of marriage, women had little or no means to support themselves. In theory, single women retained some rights, but this area has not been studied. These acts purportedly allowed married women to hold property, enter into contracts and lawsuits, inherit property and work for wages.
Studies of these acts, however, have resulted in diverse opinions as to whether or not they were of any real benefit to married women. The court also dismissed single women as inconsequential. This Supreme Court decision reflects the dominant social and legal thinking of the time. With the shift of population to urban centers in the late 19th century, single women began working in manufacturing occupations.
Married women followed them in the early 20th century. This raised concerns about the relative efficiency of the sexes, pay differentials and the impact of female labor on the economic position of men, which in turn led to legislation limiting female employment and segregating occupations and industries by sex.
The first time the Supreme Court held a law that discriminated against women violated the 14th Amendment was in Affirmative action policies were put in place by presidential executive orders in the s and s. These orders left out women even though the Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination based on sex. The orders were eventually amended to add women, but the affirmative action programs that resulted from these orders often leave out women in practice.
In the early s, I tracked the performance of my employer against its affirmative action plan. It never met its quotas. One hundred and fifty years after the 14th Amendment was ratified, women are still seeking a guarantee of equality under the United States Constitution. Women earn 84 cents for every dollar men make. The arguments in support of the 14th Amendment for former slaves apply equally well to women. Women should be paid reparations.
The Navy has proposed five alternatives for the acre site along Interstate 5, and four would greatly impact the local community. Opinion: Redistricting only happens every 10 years. I encourage you to get involved. It is crucial that the Redistricting Commission hears from every community. Opinion: San Diego has a once-in-a-decade opportunity to ensure fair and equitable representation.
This is a community conversation, not a unilateral decision made in a vacuum by nine appointed volunteers. The city of San Diego as well as many other municipalities have worked to avoid gerrymandering by giving redistricting responsibilities to a completely independent commission. Now the Olympics will inspire the next surfer girls.
San Diego has a solid claim as to how surfing managed to beat out numerous other sports trying to stay, or even break into, the coveted Olympic Games. Hot Property. About Us. Community papers. Games, Puzzles, and Crossword. Privacy and Terms. Courts 3 charged with murder in slaying of Spring Valley dispensary guard. Health Coronavirus cases climb past per day as Delta variant spre.
Education Gompers teachers reach contract agreement amid union dispute. Education Group says Junipero Serra High name change was unlawful. Politics San Diego will re-open final 10 library branches by September, fully restore hours by June. Business Organic beverage company Suja Life sold to investor group. Facebook Twitter Show more sharing options Share Close extra sharing options. By Barbara Grcar. Grcar is an attorney who lives in San Diego. Support our journalists. Commentary Opinion Latest. More in this section. Commentary Opinion: Redistricting only happens every 10 years. Commentary Opinion: San Diego has a once-in-a-decade opportunity to ensure fair and equitable representation.
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Opinion: Women are still seeking equality in the United States. They deserve reparations.